David Nepomuceno with 1920 Olympic gold medalist Loren Murchison of the United States
Photo Credit: Pinoy Drawer

Editor's Notes: Hidilyn Diaz has won silver in the 2016 Rio Olympics after 20 years and became the only female Olympic medalist. But not every one of us know about the exploit of the first ever Olympic athlete who competed in our debut at the 1924 Summer Olympics in Paris - David Nepomuceno.

Before there was current Olympic silver medalists Hidilyn Diaz, Mansueto Velasco or Anthony Villanueva, there was the lone Filipino sprinter who braved the distance in playing in Paris, France to represent the Philippines as it's very first Olympian. It was the first time that the Philippine flag was publicly raised in the Olympic games when five years before, any public presentation of the flag was punishable by the controversial American-imposed Flag Law.

Historical Background

Although the Philippines was not yet an independent country let alone, a Commonwealth nation (which was still 11 years away!), the International Olympic Committee allowed the Philippines to participate in the quadrennial event together with fellow Asian neighbors Japan, China (who later withdrew) and British India. The Philippine Amateur Athletic Federation, the forerunner of today's Philippine Olympic Committee, was founded in 1911 as a governing body that will oversee the development of sports in the Philippines. It was in 1913 that the Philippines organized the Far Eastern Games as a regional counterpart of the Olympic movement.


The reason behind the entry of the Philippines in the Olympics is not clear but it is likely that the IOC or the American colonial officials decided to admit the Philippines in order to expand the Asian presence in the quadrennial event. Perhaps to determine that colonial nations like Great Britain, France, Germany, Netherlands and the United States are athletically superior than their colonial subjects in British India, Dutch East Indies, and the Philippines.


Scientific racism is an active school of thought during that time and it has a significant role in public policy particularly in sports. In the end of the day, the Olympic games has become some sort of a "proving ground" to show that white athleticism is far superior to Asians, Africans and other colored races.

Who was David Nepomuceno?

Born May 9, 1900, Nepomuceno was considered as one of the greatest sprinters of his time even before his Olympic debut 92 years ago! He participated in the Far Eastern Games where he won a couple of gold medals for the country against perennial rivals from China and Japan by following the footsteps of another sprint king Fortunato Catalon.

Both sprinters had a healthy rivalry both in the national trials and the regional circuits as they battled for track supremacy. Although the aging veteran and multi-medalled Catalon is the clear-cut favorite particularly in the 200-meter straight race, the much younger Nepomuceno has a much bigger frame and longer stride that he took advantage so that he beat Catalon in the 1924 National Championships to become the country's sole representative to our first Olympiad.


Together with his coach Regino Ylanan, the founder of the National Collegiate Athletic Association of the Philippines, Nepomuceno carried our flag proudly during the opening ceremonies in the 45,000-seat Stade Olympique de Colombes - the same venue of the 1938 World Cup final.


The Men's 100 Meters was Nepomuceno's first event where he was slated to run in the fifth heat with the likes of Henricus Broos of the Netherlands, George Dunston of South Africa, Antonin Svoboda of Czechoslovakia, Poul Schiang of Denmark and Jose-Maria Larrabeti of Spain. Unfortunately, he finished dead last and both Broos and Dunston qualified to the next round. In the end, it was British Harold Abrahams who won gold at an Olympic record time of 10.6 seconds followed by American Jackson Scholz for silver at 10.7 seconds and Kiwi Arthur Porritt for bronze at 10.8. Interestingly, that race was depicted in the Academy Award-winning 1981 British historical drama "Chariots of Fire."


Nepomuceno was then slated to run against home town favorite Maurice Degrelle and Dutchman Marinus van den Berge in Heat 15 of the Men's 200 Meters. But he was not able to progress as Degrelle topped the race at 22.6 seconds. In what was expected to be a highly-anticipated rematch between American Scholz and British Abrahams in the final became an anticlimactic finish as Scholz ran away with the gold medal at an Olympic record time of 21.6 seconds followed by compatriot Charles Paddock for the silver at 21.7 seconds and British Eric Lidell for the bronze at 21.9 seconds. Abrahams finished dead last at 22.3 seconds.

After the Olympics

Despite an uneventful Olympic debut, Nepomuceno wanted to bounce back and prepare for the 1925 Far Eastern Games as he resumes his rivalry with Catalon. At the Manila games, it was Catalon who took the first shot as he took the gold in the Men's 100 Meters over Nepomuceno and Japanese sprinter Sasagi Tani. But in the Men's 200 Meters Straight, he bested Catalon for the gold.

In the 1927 Games in Shanghai, Nepomuceno managed to win the Men's 100 Meter gold without Catalon but he failed to defend his Men's 200 Meters Straight gold as he slid to bronze as rising sprint star Anselmo Gonzaga took the gold and Japanese Takayoshi Yoshioka settled for the silver.

He served in the Philippine Scouts and eventually, the United States Navy. Nepomuceno died on September 27, 1939.

Credits:


We can always safely say that Filipinos are basketball-loving people who not only plays it competitively but also watch it religiously on television whether it's their favorite Barangay Ginebra playing in front of a jam-packed Araneta Coliseum or the Gilas Pilipinas team playing against the best in the world. It is quite contrasting to think that there is a love-hate relationship with us Filipinos on our "national" game.

Introduction

The Philippines is one of the earliest basketball-playing countries in the world and we have been the dominant force in the region capped by our fifth-place finish in the 1936 Summer Olympics and the 1954 FIBA World Championship. But we have somehow fallen from grace as neighboring rivals finally caught up and now lorded over us. It seems that our "birthright" has been taken away from us.

We are no longer the face of Asian basketball ever since the Philippine Basketball Association was established in 1975. We may have qualified and played in the 2014 FIBA World Cup after a long hiatus but we haven't qualified to the Summer Olympics since 1972. Now after recent gains by four iterations of the Gilas program, we have fallen back again as the Samahang Basketbol ng Pilipinas (the national basketball governing body) decided to go for an all-collegiate team to represent the country in upcoming competitions leading up to the 2019 FIBA World Cup in China. So what went wrong?

Downfall Coming?

We all know that PBA remains the proving ground of the best basketball players in the country so why back track now? Is it time to reconsider a change in format of our only professional basketball league? Change the way we organize, administer and even play basketball?

Some may say that the PBA is now a relic of the past and stuck with an insular mindset that they do things better. Controversial decisions and political infighting has made it a sporting institution that is only concerned with money and entertainment not on the betterment of the sport. Are the serious issues it face will be the league's downfall? Maybe not!

Many basketball leagues have folded, MICAA, PBL, MBA, etc., but the PBA remains and survived all the challenges that undermined its survival. Sure, most big businesses have all the money and influence to sustain it to the point that it has monopolized all aspects of basketball in the country. Other regional leagues like the CBA, the KBL and the ABL have gained growing support and our regional rivals have been improving in leaps and bounds. Soon, even our very best PBA players won't be able to beat them. In fact, the youth revolution in new basketball markets is even better than our national youth program.

Signs and Symptoms

I'm not a doctor but whenever there is an illness, there are always signs and symptoms as to why such malady happens. Here are some of it:

(1) The PBA is the "PBA"
When the league broke ground 40 years ago, league officials hoped for a golden age of Philippine basketball so that it will bring us to new heights. We have not won the basketball gold in the 1974 Asian Games in Tehran, Iran and it was some 13 years that we ruled the region. Starting a professional league was thought to speed up the process of improving our game to meet the growing challenges of China and Japan.

Although it has revolutionized basketball in our country as the second oldest professional league and made the PBA an institution that only MICAA can dream about. It has also made basketball development insular as drafting players into the league is strictly regulated so that only "Filipinos" can play while foreigners can be just seasonal "imports" for specific reinforced tournaments ("conference" as it called in the Philippines).

Since companies owned the teams, the idea of having a home-away league spiced up by regional rivalries never materialized as league officials and team owners wanted full control so that all games are played in Manila. From an ultra-competitive league in the 70's up to the late 90's, the PBA's monopoly of the game has devolved into a league marred by alleged game-fixing controversies and blatant political infighting.

After all, the PBA is all about "pulitika, basketbol at artista" where former players become politicians or TV actors while one champion boxer becomes part team owner, absentee head coach and wannabe basketball star all in one.

(2) League officials are dinosaurs

I'm sorry to say but league officials are out of touch of reality. They don't seem to get it done. Even the commissioner is ruling the league like a king, who by the way ousted his own namesake. He settles scores like we're still in the Wild West, ask Dondon Hontiveros, Don Carlos AlladoCalvin Abueva or Snow Badua. Most of them are not tech savvy so that the PBA doesn't have its own website. They don't reach out to the fans like they used to.

(3) Rivalries are dead

The Araneta Coliseum and Mall of Asia Arena only comes alive when it's the Manila Clasico or Ginebra plays. Gone are the days where every single team is a contender. There may be a rivalry between the SMC teams San Miguel, Ginebra and Star against the MVP teams TNT, NLEX and Meralco but the rest have become cannon fodder or farm teams. Only Alaska and Rain or Shine have remained "independent." Trades have become one-sided and the draft is starting to become a joke due to under-the-table deals and blatant disregard of the rules with the drafting of KIA (now Mahindra) "head coach" as the team's own choice!

Both the SMC and MVP camps are just hoarding talents to the point that even their bench players can become stars of other teams. A player's long term value has plummeted in exchange for a better deal. Uneven team rosters will create imbalance in the competition thereby having more "boring" games and empty seats.

Referees have more power that any crucial missed and wrong calls they make can change the outcome of the game. Controversial rule changes have made the game so scripted so that Alaska losing to San Miguel in the Commissioner's Cup after leading 3-0 has conspiracy theories written all over it.

(4) Outdated tournament format

During the early years of the league, it was sensible to have a separate "all-Filipino" and "import-reinforced" tournaments in order to further develop "homegrown" talents and up the ante with a more competitive tournament with foreign players and even foreign team invitees. But this format has become more dated as we are now in a more globalized society where being protectionist will only hamper the growth of our players. Fil-foreigners have flooded the league so that local players are groping for form hoping to catch up and fight hard for precious roster spots. Import-laced conferences even pushed them to the edge of the bench.

There is also one thing that the PBA is missing, there is no true season champion. Every season is subdivided into three conferences with no bearing on each other unless you make a "grandslam" (a sweep of all three conferences). Since all teams are company owned, there is no clear distinction as to what team a fan supports unless if you're a rabid Ginebra fan. A team is not tied to a certain locality so any team that plays against Ginebra is always the road team. Ginebra capitalizes on its fan-favorite status but always managed to underperform in the end most of the time thereby earning the tag of "kangkong" from non-Ginebra fans.

The league remains far from reach by most of the fans outside Metro Manila. Although they have out-of-town games once in a while, the PBA remains centralized with majority of its games are played in the capital.

What's the whole point of having separate "all-Filipino" and "import" conferences when the collegiate league plays one season with their Fil-foreign players and African imports? What's the difference between the Commissioner's Cup and Governor's Cup?

(5) Roster imbalance and growing dependence on Fil-Foreign players

We all know about the lopsided trades and hoarding of stars by certain teams. There is also the case of so-called farm teams like Blackwater and Mahindra where some players are traded to these teams to unload high-salaried players only to be traded to another sister team. There is also an ambiguity in the selection process and drafting of players. Pure-blooded Filipinos are considered "locals" while foreigners are considered "imports" that can only play on reinforced conference. We all know that.

But what about Fil-Foreigners? If you have at least one foreign parent but you were born here and played college ball here, you are considered a "local" right? Yes, you are. But if you're born in the United States whether you're a full-blooded Filipino or a hyphenated one, you will always be branded as a "Fil-Foreigner." When you have the latter status, there will be more requirements you need to meet in order to play in PBA. But what about the so-called "Fil-shams"?

Interestingly, some Fil-Foreigners were just flash in the pan and their career never panned out. Even though chemistry will always be an issue in import-reinforced conference, most teams tend to replace imports quite often. If you're a foreigner looking in, you will see the league as an unstable playing environment. There is less time to jell and prove your worth. On the other hand, even if imports make 50 points and 20 rebounds per game and their team loses, they would be replaced.

(6) Politics

All the hullabaloo in the PBA is politics of power and patronage in a cold-war backdrop between SMC and MVP groups. Each faction is trying to one up against the other by exerting their influence over the league, the players and even, the national team itself. This is the reason why, we never ever had a chance in fielding all the best possible talents in the national team. Never in the world where you can have an absentee player-coach, a team consultant that acts like a coach, a team manager who vapes in full-view of television viewers and live audience.

The PBA has an adversarial relationship with the SBP. The national basketball governing body should put the PBA on its leash and not the other way around.

It seems being a politician/coach is like a badge of honor here. Some coaches also coach in the collegiate level on the side as well!

Will the league meet its eventual downfall if it doesn't reinvent itself? Only time will tell!

Tell us what are the other reasons why the PBA sucks.


"Ang hindi lumingon sa pinanggalingan ay hindi makakarating sa paroroonan." - Jose Rizal

I have always been fascinated with family history and genealogy because I never stopped looking for my roots and where I came from. In fact, it was one of the reasons why I took up BA History in university and not got for a potential money-making career with courses like Nursing, Engineering or Information Technology. I know there is no value for my course in a third-world country like the Philippines but I do know that there is something money can't buy.

It is the knowledge of your ancestors and the origins of where you came from. Even before 2009, I was already doing a lot of research on my family history so it dawn on me, what if trace my family tree back to the earliest known ancestors that I have. I did not expect to stumble upon famous ancestors or even well-off, rich "cousins." Some may say if I earn money out of it, the answer is NO. Others will wonder what I'm going to do with the data, the answer is just plain knowledge. I want to know and I want to share it to the next generation.

The sad thing is that people don't bother knowing about their heritage. No one wants to talk about stories from the past, people who have died a long time ago, or reminiscing painful memories of the past. I can't blame them but putting a lid on your past is just erasing your identity and the identities of future descendants from now on. I want to preserve history.

So after so many hours and years of doing this, I found out that my parents are both connected by a single family. And to my surprise, my father's grandmother's lineage is descended from Juliana Duterte and my mom's grandmother's lineage is descended from both Escolastico Duterte Sr. and Venancia Duterte (whose daughter Prudencia Duterte is the wife of Escolastico). Juliana and Venancia are sisters and daughters of Francisco Duterte and Romualda Fulgencia.

My Paternal Line
My Maternal Line

The truth of the matter is, I never expected that our current president Rodrigo Duterte would become the most powerful man in the country. And I realized that I'm somehow related to him, it may not be a direct relation but I'm related nevertheless.

President Rodrigo Duterte's family tree

Interestingly, the surname DUTERTE is derived from the French word du tertre, which means "from a hillock" or "of rising ground." If I were French, I would have pronounced it as "Du-tey." And the French lineage can be traced back to Pierre Duterte (1670-1740) with his descendants still living in Tourcoing, Nord, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, France.

Click the picture to see high-resolution image
If you're tracing your family tree as well and you may want to collaborate or share your notes with me, don't hesitate to leave a message below. You can visit our Facebook fan page or website for more information.


Points of divergence are historical crossroads where there is a crucial choice historical actors have to make wherein an alternate decision will irrevocably change the outcome of the history we know. These events are affected by slight changes in the actual timeline with divergence in the actual decisions made not just by major characters but even insignificant minor characters as well.

What if no one radioed Washington D.C. on the attack on Pearl Harbor? Will Japan continued its relentless attack up to the West Coast and consider attacking the Panama Canal as well? Will San Francisco look like Yokohama in a Japanese-occupied California? These are some of the questions that are left unanswered. Here are points of divergence that would create different historical outcomes:

1. A Cuban Missile Crisis Gone Hot

Envisions a world where the military-industrial complex sabotages President John F. Kennedy’s attempts to negotiate peace during the Cuban Missile Crisis. In this case, the United States decided to invade Cuba where it eventually disintegrates into a nuclear war that destroyed the Soviet Union and the People’s Republic of China and a fallout cloud over Asia kills millions of people more. Meanwhile, New York, Washington DC, San Diego, Miami and other cities were wiped out. However, all surviving nations renounce their possession of nuclear weapons – with the exception of the U.S., now under martial law.


2. Marilyn Monroe Survived

Marilyn Monroe, a.k.a. Norma Jean Baker, died a mysterious death in 1962, at age 36, has always been a controversial topic even for alternate history writers. Journalist Mark Lawson's 1995 novel "Idlewild" explores a scenario wherein Monroe survived her suicidal episodes, President John F. Kennedy was not assassinated and their affair went on for another 30 years.

In a 1992 story for Entertainment Weekly, Douglas Mendin imagined that Monroe would survive, dedicate herself to serious acting and win an Oscar in 1965. She would then record a hit song with Frank Sinatra, make bad films, and give up acting in 1980 to look after her drug-addicted twin sons.


3. William Shakespeare became a renowned historian

In Poul Andersen's acclaimed 1974 novel "A Midsummer Tempest," he envisioned a world where William Shakespeare's plays are utterly accurate and he is renowned not as a creative genius, but as a great chronicler of history. Hence, fairies and other magical beings exist on this world, and the clockwork technology of Ancient Rome advanced to the stage where, in the age of Oliver Cromwell, steam trains are already running through England. The Industrial Revolution happened 200 years earlier!


4. Woodrow Wilson never became president

An interesting chain reaction might have happened if Woodrow Wilson never became president as envisioned in Gore Vidal's 1995 novel "The Smithsonian Institution." In Vidal's altered timeline, a teenage math genius is mysteriously summoned to the Smithsonian Institution in 1939, where he glimpses the horrors of the Second World War. Determined to prevent it from happening, he goes back in history to seek cause of it wall. He pins the blame on that bloody global war in President Woodrow Wilson’s vision for the League of Nations as it caused Germany’s struggles in the 1920s, paving the way for the rise of Adolf Hitler.


5. Frank Sinatra never existed

He did it his way but what if Frank Sinatra was never born? Well a 2009 episode of "Family Guy" explored that possibility where Stewie and Brian found themselves in an alternate universe wherein everything is sweet and wholesome for non-Jewish. In this parallel world, Christianity never existed and the Dark Ages never happened. Reverse role was the norm as it was the dog doing their human master's thing. But what about Sinatra?

He never existed so there was no one who was able to influence the outcome of the 1960 election that elected President John F. Kennedy in our timeline. Instead, Richard Nixon was elected, and “totally botched the Cuban Missile Crisis, causing World War III.” This caused devastation all around them. Lee Harvey Oswald didn’t shoot Kennedy, but shot Mayor McCheese instead.



6. Franklin Roosevelt was assassinated in 1933

We all know that FDR remains the longest serving president of the United States but what if he was killed by an assassin's bullet before he even began his administration? Philip K. Dick and his acclaimed novel "The Man in the High Castle" examines the consequences of that historical divergence. Giuseppe Zangara has successfully assassinated President-elect Franklin Roosevelt and without his unifying personality, the United States became weak and the Axis won World War 2 in 1947.

As John Nance Garner assumed the role and later Republican John W. Brickner, the United States struggled during the Great Depression and eventually retreated itself to isolation so that the absence of a powerful and effective military force to stand in the way of the Axis, made it easier for Germany and Japan to win the war.

Fast forward to their version of 1962, slavery was re-instituted and few surviving Jews have hold out. There was a technological leap forward with the Nazis inventing the hydrogen bomb and began supersonic air travel and space colonization.


7. Operation Sea Lion succeeded in knocking Britain out of the war

We all know that Germany wanted to invade the British Isles through a combined air and naval campaign that will saw the Wehrmacht crossing the English Channel and unleash their panzers towards London. Although the plan was shelved in 1940 in our timeline, military tacticians from the Royal Military Academy of Sandhurst have revisited the operation should it succeeded.

They have started war games wherein they speculate about how different strategies might have changed history. You may also give the Hearts of Iron game a go and find out how it would unfold. It depends on who you want to believe is plausible.

Some alternate history buffs would say that the battle-hardened Germans were no match against the Home Guards as most of the regular British Army units are scattered throughout its far-flung colonies. On the other hand, other experts believe that the Germans would not have been able to withstand the might of the British Home Guards, the Royal Air Force and the Royal Navy. The Germans would have been bottled up in the English Channel where it would have been severely weakened the German army, and hastened the end of the war.

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{picture#https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-AgIZYN7u_Hg/VZvLmrA0hpI/AAAAAAAARt8/mscbLJ1All4/profile%2Bpic.jpg} JP Canonigo is a historian, professional blogger and copywriter, online content specialist, copywriter, video game junkie, sports fanatic and jack-of-all trades. {facebook#http://www.facebook.com/istoryadista} {twitter#http://www.twitter.com/jpthehistorian} {google#http://plus.google.com/+JPSakuragi}
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