Ever since the United States invaded Afghanistan in an effort to quash out the Taliban and Al-Qaeda after the disastrous 9-11 Terrorist Attacks, the war remains unwinnable despite thousands of Americans and coalition forces killed and countless Afghan dead. The longest war in recent memory remains a deep scar separating the United States from the sympathy of the Muslim world. Despite proclaming itself leader of the "free world," anti-Americanism is the way the world see America.

You will never realize that there different countries who joined the American forces in the mountainous and rugged countrysides of Afghanistan just to take control of this once proud nation. Australian soldiers building schools, Canadian military personnel providing support services, and even South Korean medical personnel providing needed health services. The multinational forces are quite small because this America's war after all.

Have you ever imagined what these mate during their tour of duty? We can only imagine the hardships of the 101st Airborne Division during the Battle of the Bulge just to find a decent food to eat. Their modern predecessors are quite lucky because they have ready-to-eat meals in modular food packs airdropped behind enemy lines.

Here are the amazing pictures of what military chow is in wartime Afghanistan:

Editor's Notes: The term 'Moro' is a misnomer but it is repeatedly used in the historical sources but for the sake of political correctness, I will use Muslim Filipinos to correctly identify the people involved. This is a reprint of the article posted in old blog site.

Pacification Plan

In an effort to win the hearts and minds of the people, the Americans divided Mindanao into five provinces, wherein each province is administered by American officials. These provinces include: Cotabato, Davao, Sulu, Lanao and Zamboanga. The Americans took advantage on the existing political system familiar to the Muslim Filipinos wherein major datus became ward chiefs while the minor datus became sheriffs, deputies and judges. Several American-held forts were established to discouraged further uprisings.

Under the Wood Administration

Under the governorship of Leonard Wood, the U.S. has assumed direct control of the Muslim areas and demoted the Sultan of Sulu to a purely religious office. Slavery was abolished and the Cedula Act of 1903 created an annual poll registration tax. The legal code was changed as well as the educational and economic system.

Sultan Jamal-ul-Kiram II at center of the bottom row. Datu Tahil is on the bottom row to the far left. The American officer is believed to be 2nd Lt. John W. Norwood of the 23rd Infantry. In a 1912 memoir, Norwood describes a similar photo session in early 1900. Charlie Schuck, the invaluable German-born interpreter for the Americans is standing to Norwood's left, and the man with the hat at the back left of the photo is his older brother Eddy Schuck.  (Photo from Library of Congress).

Despite some non-violent effort to appease the Muslim Filipinos, military and punitive actions were made to curtail rampant lawlessness and banditry throughout the frontier. During Governor Woods term as governor, there five major engagements between the Americans and the Muslim Filipinos.

The first one was an attempt by Governor Wood to replicate an earlier expedition by Captain Pershing. But "Wood's March Around Lake Lanao" was aborted. Unlike Pershing's humane approach, Wood took the expedition by storm with "a big stick," he later realized that his "war" against the Muslims was not against the individual hostile datus but the people themselves.

The second engagement was the Hassan Uprising wherein Governor Wood personally led the Provincial Army against Panglima Hassan of Luuk, the most powerful datu of Jolo. Also involved in the uprising were prominent datus like Datu Andung of Taglibi, Datu Usap of Luuk, Datu Pala of Jolo and Datu Jikiri of Pata. The flames of war were further heated up because of this engagment.

Punitive expeditions were sent against hostile datus in Maguindanao, and in 1903, the Ali Rebellion broke out and all-out war was waged in the areas of the Rio Grande. The uprising was the open collective defiance of the Maguindanaoans, who followed the earlier movement of Datu Uttu of Buayan -- who fiercely resisted Spanish incursions into Rio Grande and Pulangi. Uttu's son, Datu Ali, continued his crusade against the Americans even though he lacked the support from his father-in-law, Datu Piang ("the Lame"). Because of Piang's cooperation with the American authorities, Ali's rebellion was brutally suppressed. The last uprisings in the Maguindanao region ended in 1913 with the defeat of Datu Alamada of Buldon, Datu Ampatuan of Manganui and Datu Ingkal of Kidapawan.

In the Lanao region, Lt. Col. Lloyd M. Brett's troops with the help of Piang's men defeated the Datu Udasan of Malabang in a bloody battle in April 1903. Udasan's men were accused of cattle rustling and horse stealing. The conflict between the Maranaos and Maguinadaons intensified after the death of Datu Amirul Umbra and 14 of Udasan's men. The Maranaos blamed the American authorities for taking side with the Maguindanaoans. The Maranao attacks on U.S. patrols were attributed to Maranao resentment for the resentment for the killing of Datu Umbra and two kinsmen of Datu Dacula, Umbra's father.

A Navy shore party transporting a dismounted 3 inch gun on board an Army cannon on Jolo Island for use in the siege of cotta Pang-Pang in 1904. (Photo from 14th Cavalry Collection, US Army Military History Institute).

The third engagment was the Battle of Taraca in present-day Taraka, Lanao del Sur. General Wood invited Datu Ampuanagus to consult with him, but was met with refusal. The Muslim Filipinos then began extensive preparations in fortifying the Datu's fort. The fort was assaulted and captured by American forces, resulting in the death of two hundred of the Muslim Filipinos warriors. Datu Ampuanagus surrendered along with six other datus and 22 warriors. The Americans lost two killed and five wounded.

The fourth engagement involved a series of battles against Datu Ali because of his defiance of Governor Wood's anti-slavery policy. This battles were the Battle of Siranaya and the Battle of the Malalag River. The Battle of Siranaya was an interesting one because of the fact that there were some Americans defected to the other camp and battled their own "comrades."

The fifth engagement, and the bloodiest so far, was the First Battle of Bud Dajo wherein an estimated 800 to 1,000 Muslim men, women and children had taken refuge in a volcanic crater, and after a bloody battle (American casualties, 18) only six survived. Although a victory for the American forces, Bud Dajo became a public relations disaster.

The First Battle of Bud Dajo

"Sultan of Sulu: It will be a very good idea if there is any more trouble among the Moros to let the chief and head-men get together and have a conference, and put it down themselves.
Wood: That is a very good idea indeed. I think that the sight of the sultan… carrying out the law… would have a fine effect here.”

-- The Wood Papers, Stenographic report, 13 April 1906

Some Muslim tribes on Sulu island continued resistance against American rule for over a decade of intermittent fighting. The Americans used a lot of “soft power” through markets and religious influence to calm the population. In particular, the U.S. relied on the Sultan of Sulu as a spiritual leader of the Muslims. The U.S. even contacted the Ottoman Empire and receive the Turkish Caliph authorization to rule over Muslim people.

The bloody road to the battle began when a certain Pala ran amok in British-held Borneo. The Muslim Filipinos differentiate between the religious rite of the juramentado and the strictly secular violence of the amucks, Pala's rampage was of the latter. Pala then went to ground at his home cotta near the city of Jolo (the seat of the Sultan of Sulu), on the island of Jolo. Colonel Hugh L. Scott, the governor of the District of Sulu, attempted to arrest Pala, but Pala's datu opposed this move. During the resulting fight, Pala escaped. He avoided capture for several months, setting up his own cotta and becoming a datu in his own right. Wood led an expedition against Pala but was ambushed by Muslim Filipinos from the Bud Dajo area with the help of Pala. Wood beat off the ambushers, and many of them found refuge in the crater of Bud Dajo. Wood determined that the Muslim Filipinos held too strong of a position to assault with the forces at hand, and so he withdrew.

In formation in new tropical khaki uniforms

Bud Dajo lies 6 miles (10 km) from the city of Jolo and is an extinct volcano, 2,100 feet (640 m) above sea level, steep, conical, and has thickly forested slopes. Only three major paths lead up the mountain, and the thick growth kept the Americans from cutting new paths. However, there were many minor paths, known only to the Muslim Filipinos, which would allow them to resupply even if the main paths were blocked. The crater at the summit is 1,800 yards in circumference and easily defended. The mountain itself is eleven miles (18 km) in circumference, making a siege difficult.

Over the months that followed, the Bud Dajo rebels were joined by various outlaws, bringing the population of the crater up to several hundred. Water was plentiful, and the rebels began farming rice and potatoes. Scott sent the Sultan of Sulu and other high ranking datus to ask the rebels to return to their homes, but the rebels refused. Wood ordered an attack in February 1906, but Scott convinced him to rescind the order, arguing that the opposition of the surrounding datus would keep the rebels isolated. Scott was worried that an attack on Bud Dajo would reveal just how easily defended it was, ‬encouraging repeats of the standoff in the future. Unfortunately, the Bud Dajo rebels were embolden by American inaction, and began raiding nearby Muslim settlements for women and cattle. Although the datus of Jolo continued to condemn the rebels, there began to develop popular support of a general uprising among the Muslim commoners of Jolo.

The crisis at Bud Dajo occurred during a period of transition in the leadership of the 'Moro Province.' On February 1, 1906, Wood was promoted to the position of Commander of the Philippine Division, and was relieved as commander of the Department of Mindanao-Jolo by General Tasker H. Bliss. However, Wood retained his position as civil governor of the 'Moro Province' until sometime after the Battle of Budd Dajo. Colonel Scott was absent during part of the crisis, and Captain Reeves, the deputy governor of the Sulu District, served as his substitute.

On March 2, 1906, Wood ordered Colonel J.W. Duncan of the 6th Infantry (stationed at Zamboanga, the provincial capital) to lead an expedition against Bud Dajo. Duncan and Companies K and M took the transport USS Wright to Jolo. Governor Scott sent three friendly datus up the mountain to ask the rebels to disarm and disband, or at least send their women and children to the valley. They denied these requests, and Scott ordered Duncan to begin the assault.‭

General Davis on the march to Bayan

The assault force consisted of “272 men of the 6th Infantry, 211 [dismounted] men of the 4th Cavalry, 68 men of the 28th Artillery Battery, 51 Sulu Constabulary, 110 men of the 19th Infantry and 6 sailors from the gunboat Pampanga.” The battle began on March 5, as mountain guns fired 40 rounds of shrapnel into the crater. On March 6, Wood and Bliss arrived, but left Duncan in direct command. Captain Reeves, the acting governor of the District of Sulu, made one last attempt to negotiate with the rebels. He failed, and the Americans drew up into three columns and proceeded up the three main mountain paths. The columns were under the command of Major Bundy, Captain Rivers, and Captain Lawton. The going was tough, with the troops ascending a 60% slope, using machetes to clear the path.

At 0700, March 7, Major Bundy's detachment encountered a barricade blocking the path, 500 feet (150 m) below the summit. Sharpshooters picked off Muslim Filipino defenders, and the barricade was shelled with rifle grenades. The barricade was then assaulted in a bayonet charge. The Muslim Filipinos staged a defense, then charged with‭ kris and spear. Two hundred Mulsim Filipinos died in this engagement, and Major Bundy's detachment suffered heavy losses. Captain Rivers' detachment also encountered a barricade, and took it after several hours of fighting, during which Rivers was severely wounded. Captain Lawton's detachment advanced up a poor path, so steep in places that the Americans proceeded on hands and knees. They were harassed by Muslim Filipinos hurling boulders and occasionally rushing with‭ krises. Lawton finally took the defensive trenches on the crater rim by storm.

The Muslim Filipinos retreated into the crater, and fighting continued until nightfall. During the night, the Americans hauled mountain guns to the crater's edge with block and tackle. At daybreak, the American guns (both the mountain guns and the guns of the Pampanga) opened up on the Muslim Filipinos' fortifications in the crater. The Muslim Filipinos, armed with krises and spears, refused to surrender and held their positions. Some of the defenders rushed the Americans and were cut down. The Americans charged the surviving Muslim Filipinos with fixed bayonets, and the Muslim Filipinos fought back with improvised grenades made with black powder and seashells. The defenders were wiped out.

Out of the estimated 800 to 1,000 Muslim Filipinos at Bud Dajo, only 6 survived. Corpses were piled five deep, and many of the bodies had fifty wounds. According to Hurley, American casualties were 21 killed, 75 wounded. According to Wood's biographer Herman Hagedorn, “one-fourth of the troops actively engaged have been killed or wounded.” By any estimate, Bud Dajo was the bloodiest engagement of the 'Moro Rebellion.'

The Aftermath

Bud Dajo is comparable to the My Lai Massacre in the Vietnam War. It marked the high point in the U.S. Anti-Imperialist movement. Mark Twain even criticized American conduct in the battle and went on to ridicule Medal of Honor awardee 1st Lt. Gordon Johnston.

“Apparently Johnson was the only wounded man on our side, whose wound was worth anything as an advertisement. It has made a great deal more noise in the world than has any similarly colossal event since ‘Humpty Dumpty’ fell off the wall and got injured.”

“Heretofore, the Moros have used knives and clubs mainly; also ineffectual trade-muskets, when they had any….

“[T]o pen six hundred helpless and weaponless savages in a hole like rats in a trap and massacre them in detail during a stretch of a day and a half, from a safe position on the heights above, was no brilliant feat of arms.”
President Theodore Roosevelt congratulated Governor Wood for their victory but on March 9, 1906, the New York Times put "WOMEN AND CHILDREN KILLED IN MORO BATTLE PRESIDENT WIRES CONGRATULATIONS TO TROOPS" on its headlines.

The press' lurid account of the "Moro Crater Massacre" fell on receptive ears. There were still deep misgivings among the American public about America's role during the Spanish-American War and the stories of atrocities carried out during the Philippine Insurrection. The public had also been largely unaware of the continuing violence in the 'Moro Province,' and were shocked to learn that killing continued. Under pressure from Congress, Secretary of War William Howard Taft cabled Wood for explanation of the “wanton slaughter” of woman and children. Despite not being in command of the assault (although he was the senior officer present), Wood accepted full responsibility. By the time the scandal died down, Wood had assumed his post as Commander of the Philippine Division, and General Tasker H. Bliss had replaced him as governor of the 'Moro Province.'

In response to criticism, Wood's explanation of the high number of women and children killed stated that the women of Bud Dajo dressed as men and joined in the combat, and that the men used children as living shields.

Some of Wood's critics accused him of seeking glory by storming the crater rather than besieging the rebels. Wood did show some signs of being a glory-hound earlier in his tenure as the governor of the 'Moro Province,' taking the Provincial Army on punitive raids against cottas over minor offenses that would have been better left to the district governors. This heavy-handedness jeopardized relations with friendly datus, who viewed the encroachment of the army as a challenge. Wood badly needed military laurels, since he had gone through an uphill United States Senate battle over his appointment to the rank of Major General, which was finally confirmed in March‭ 1904. Although Wood had served as an administrator in Cuba, he had seen only a hundred days of field service during the Spanish-American War. Wood had been promoted over the heads of many more senior officers, bringing charges of favoritism against President and fellow Rough Rider Teddy Roosevelt. Even though his promotion had been confirmed, Wood's reputation still suffered. Wood's willingness to take responsibility for Bud Dajo did much to improve his reputation within the army.

Wood argued that besieging Bud Dajo would have been impossible, given the ample supplies of the rebels, the 11-mile circumference of the mountain, the thickly forested terrain, and the existence of hidden paths up the mountainside. During the Second Battle of Bud Dajo, in December 1911, General “Black Jack” Pershing (the third and final military governor of the 'Moro Province') did succeed in besieging Bud Dajo, by cutting a lateral trail which encircled the mountain, 300 yards downhill from the crater rim. This cut off the Muslim Filipinos in the crater from the hidden mountainside paths. However, the tactical situation facing Pershing in 1911 was far different from that facing Wood in 1906.

The Colt .45 handgun was used by the Americans to repel attacks by juramentados

In response to the casualty rates of American soldiers from repeated attacks and ambushes, the then-standard .38 Long Colt revolver was found to be unsuitable for the rigors of jungle warfare, particularly in terms of stopping power, as the Muslim Filipinos had very high battle morale and 'frequently used drugs' to inhibit the sensation of pain. The U.S. Army briefly reverted to using the M1873 single-action revolver in .45 Colt caliber, which had been standard during the last decades of the 19th century; the slower, heavier bullet was found to be more effective against charging tribesmen. The problems with the .38 Long Colt led to the Army shipping new single action .45 Colt revolvers to the Philippines in 1902. It also prompted the then-Chief of Ordnance, General William Crozier, to authorize further testing for a new service pistol.

The Juramentados

A dead juramentado

Despite the defeat of various Muslim uprisings, another form of resistance have took another form. The other means of resistance was juramentado attacks. Individuals would take a religious oath to become suicide warriors who would ambush Americans or Filipino Catholics in crowded markets, at night, or in the jungle. Juramentados fought almost like commandos in small teams. They would try to ambush Americans from concealed positions, or attempt to raid American camps at night. Official juramentados needed religious leaders to give the oath, and in the absence of actual attempts to Christianize the populations, few religious scholars and jurists were willing to give it. American encounters with juramentados were quite rare compared to the frequency of attacks on Spaniards in the previous century.

~ to be continued ~

Moro Rebellion -- wikipedia.com
Guardians of Empire by Brian McAllister Linn
Kris vs. Krag by Miguel J. Hernandez
Swish of the Kris by Vic Hurley

Editor's Notes: The term 'Moro' is a misnomer but it is repeatedly used in the historical sources but for the sake of political correctness, I will use Muslim Filipinos to correctly identify the people involved. This is a reprint of the article posted in old blog site.


As the Filipino-American War reached its second year, another dimension of the conflict emerged in the troubled south, the island of Mindanao and Sulu archipelago. This area, which never been controlled by the Spanish for more than 300 years, is the only area which opposed any form of incursion by the Christian Filipinos and American authorities.

Despite the Muslim Filipinos' unified stand against these local and foreign 'invaders', they were slowly evicted from their own lands as immigrants from the Visayas and Mindanao have settled much of their ancestral land. Japanese and Chinese immigrants have also increased in numbers particularly in the Christian-dominated areas of Misamis, Zamboanga and Davao provinces.

Faced with a growing threat, the Muslim Filipinos decided to make a stand against any form of incursion to their territories. However, they are also suffering from factional differences since they are governed by various warring datus and sultans.

A Datu and his retinue

Now that the Americans have defeated their Christian brothers of Luzon and Visayas in a bloody and costly campaign. The Americans set their sights on Mindanao.

Eventhough, General Emilio Aguinaldo has surrendered and some pockets of resistance of General Miguel Malvar in Batangas and General Vicente Lukban in Samar were still undergoing, the Americans has still have work to do in Mindanao. And pacifying Mindanao is the job of Indian War veterans of the U.S. forces under the leadership of Brigadier General John C. Bates (and later under the command of Brigadier General William Kobbe and Brigadier General George Whitefield Davis).

This forgotten war is similar to what the Americans are facing right now in Iraq as each soldier is a man for himself as they suffered casualties from juramentados, which is similar to Iraqi suicide bombers. Despite superior firepower, the Americans fought with equal ferocity as they never faced such zealous and brave warriors like the juramentados.

Crowd gathers on a local customary fight scene

For many unsuccessful occasions, the Spanish fought a bitter war against the Muslim Filipinos and had some successes of their own by capturing the Sultanate of Sulu's capital, Jolo, in 1876. A Treaty of Peace was signed between the Sultanate and Spain on July 22, 1878. After the Spanish defeat in the war, the Philippines were sold to the Americans at the Treaty of Paris, but the mistranslation of the earlier treaty of Spain with the Sultanate allowed the Americans to occupy strategic garrisons located in the Sultanate's territory.

Brigadier General John C. Bates was sent to negotiate with Sultan Jamalul Kiram II. The Sultan was disappointed by the hand-over of control to the Americans because he expected that the Sultanate's sovereignty will be restored by the defeat of Spain. After the Bates Treaty was signed, which was based on the controversial Spanish treaty, the mistranslation was still retained. Who said lightning only strikes once? The new treaty gave the Americans more power than the Spanish had.
The Sultan of Bayan visits Captain John J. Pershing at Camp Vicars, Mindanao, 1902

The Start of the Conflict

On March 27, 1901, the rebel army of a certain General Capistrano surrendered to the Americans, thus ending the American campaigns in northern Mindanao. Because of this development, the Americans can now devote more resources to their push to the south.

The Americans were now in the position to attack the poorly-defended areas of Muslim Mindanao. They already relieved the Spanish at their garrisons in Jolo on May 18, 1899 and Zamboanga on December 1899.

One of the problems that cause the conflict to erupt was the American's ignorance of the people's culture especially the Muslim Filipinos. Furthermore, the "white man's burden" inculcated in typical American soldier (most of them came from the racially-divided southern states) further brushed the "salt to the wound." Misunderstanding between Americans and Muslim Filipinos contributed to the outbreak of hostilities.

Though Brig.-Gen. Davis and Captain John J. Pershing (the future commander of the American Expeditionary Forces in World War I) made conciliatory approaches with the various Muslim leaders in the area, some of the Indian War veterans took their racist mentalities with such catchphrases like "a good Indian is a dead Indian" or "civilize 'em with a Krag". And just like what they did to the Indians back home, they also made the Muslim Filipinos suffer.

Ambushes against American patrols began and because of this, Major General Adna Chaffee -- the military governor of the Philippines -- demanded that the offending datus should hand over the killers of the American troops and return all stolen government properties.

A series of bloody battle ensued.

Future US President Howard Taft with Muslim leaders

The Battle of Pandapatan

The first major encounter between the Americans and the Filipinos was the Battle of Pandapatan. An American unit led by Colonel Frank Baldwin was sent by the authorities to quell further violence against American patrols. On May 2, 1902, Col. Bell's forces attacked a Muslim cotta in Pandapatan. The American firepower was obviously terrifying as the otta was only defended by determined kris-wielding warriors and some riflemen using antiquated Spanish Mauser rifles with matching Napoleonic regalias. These men, though overmatched and outpowered fought to the bitter end.

The cotta was unexpectedly strong because of the fact that it was on a strategic position -- it was on a steep slope and was littered with marshes. On the first day of the battle, the Americans suffered about 18 casualties.

The 27th Infantry Regiment on the March to Lake Lanao - April, 1902

On the second day, the Americans used ladders and moat-bridging tools to break through the fortifications, and a general slaughter of the defenders followed. This massacre illustrated a major difficulty the Americans would face time and again in their dealings with the Muslim Filipinos—how to avoid killing them, a task made especially difficult by the custom of taking their women and children with them into their cotta fortifications when danger threatened.

Camp Vickers was established and the Americans started to consolidate their gains. Captain Pershing warned Colonel Baldwin that further attacks against the hostile datus can provoke other datus to join the enemy even though the survivors of the battle built another stronghold in Bacalod.

Developments in the American camp

The first American victory against the Muslim Filipinos encouraged Captain Pershing to continue his diplomacy with the different datus in the area. On July 4, 1902, President Theodore Roosevelt declared the cessation of hostilities in the Philippines except the Muslim-area of Mindanao. Brig.-Gen. Davis became the governor general of the Philippines and Brigadier General Samuel Sumner became the head of the Mindanao-Jolo Department.

The Macui Expedition by Captain Pershing established American dominance in the area. In a strange twist of fate, Captain Pershing was named datu by Datu Sajiduciaman, the defeated datu of the battle of Pandapatan, on February 10, 1903.

April 11. 1902 - Generals Chaffee and Davis catch up with Colonel Baldwin
April 26 - Baldwin conference with coastal inhabitants
April 27 - General Davis and Adjutant, Major James Pettit, in conference with local datus

Moro Rebellion -- wikipedia.com
Guardians of Empire by Brian McAllister Linn
Kris vs. Krag by Miguel J. Hernandez
Swish of the Kris by Vic Hurley

"Every epoch has its own heroes and every hero has his own epoch."
-- President Elpidio Quirino

With less than a year remaining, the Philippines will be electing another man/woman in office, the Presidency of the country, and yet many politicians have started their political campaigns already. Many observers are wary of the typical and usual political malpractice in ensuring victory.

But 60 years ago, political participation was still the same as today though its not that quite sophisticated because of the absence of mobile phones and television, cheating and intimidation was rampant when the country was still reeling from post-war reconstruction, growing Communist insurgency and rampant lawlessness in the countryside.

As for President Quirino's case, the Philippines was still struggling to reconstruct itself back to the day it was. After the United States gave the Philippines independence on July 4, 1946, the country is now left on its own to survive even though the country received much of the World War II reparations in Asia from the Japanese government. Private armies, brigands and hoodlums, and Communist partisans -- who used to wage guerilla wars against the Japanese army have turned their attention on corrupt political kingpins -- have made the country a gangland.

President Quirino's predecessor, President Manuel Roxas, was successful in getting rehabilitation aid from the United States at the price of giving the Americans strategic military bases in Subic and Clark Field. And one of the unforeseen consequences of the U.S.-Philippine defense agreement was the American "secret war" against the Communists and left-wing elements in the country. It is also an open secret that the Central Intelligence Agency may have meddle in the country's foreign and domestic affairs. It was during this time that the Hukbalahap were at the peak of its power and popularity because it seems that the government was helpless in preventing widespread lawlessness and the fact that most of the provincial and local government officials were corrupt.

Because of President Roxas' heavy-handed approach against the partisans, there was widespread discontentment by the peasants and so it is not surprising that many asked protection from the partisans instead from the local authorities. Unfortunately, President Roxas died from a heart attack on April 15, 1948, while having a speech at Clark Air Base.

President Quirino inherited the presidency and just like any political successor who wasn't elected, it is interesting to point out that he doesn't have the political mandate to rule the country. Its a big challenge to fill in the shoes of one's predecessor. And so in order to gain political legitimacy, getting reelected by a popular vote is the only way to gain political mandate. And so as President Quirino is about to finish the remaining years of the late President Roxas' term, he filed his candidacy for reelection as President of the Philippines.

Historically, an incumbent has always the entire political machinery that could topple any aspiring presidentiable. And two people are standing on the way for President Quirino's reelection -- Jose P. Laurel (the President of the Japanese-sponsored government) of the Nationalista Party and Jose Avelino of the Liberal Party (it was a different faction from the administration party).

According to "The Magsaysay Story" by Carlos P. Romulo and Marvin M. Gray, publisher of the Manila Evening News, they accused President Quirino of widespread fraud and intimidation of the opposition by military action, calling it the "dirty election".

In the run-down to the coming elections, political dirty tricks were already being played out as the political candidates from the local to the national elections played their hearts out to "buy" political favor from their constituents.

According to Thomas B. Bruell in his book "The quiet warrior: a biography of Admiral Raymond A. Spruance," armed thugs were hired by the Liberal Party to frighten away opposition voters while ballot boxes were stuffed with phony ballots while in transit from distant regions to Manila, where they are counted. These dirty tactics are still the classic choice of actions traditional politicians do. Mr. Bruell summed it up in a statement like this: 'Brute force, not votes, had been the deciding factor in the past elections.'

And so these dirty tactics were enough to ensure President Quirino's victory in the election as the elections results showed:

Nominee - Running Mate - Popular Vote
Elpidio Quirino (Liberal) - Fernando Lopez - 1,803,808 (50.93%)
José P. Laurel (Nationalista) - Manuel Briones - 1,318,330 (45.71%)
José Avelino (Liberal*) - Vicente J. Francisco - 419,890 (11.85%)
* - a rival faction

It is interesting to note that Senator Jose Avelino may have been used to capture potential votes for Jose P. Laurel. The elections may have been either way of the 400,000 votes may go to Laurel's favor. It was the only time in Philippine history where the duly elected president, vice president and senators all came from the same party, the Liberal Party. The senators, both from President Quirino's faction, that won were: Quintin Paredes, Esteban R. Abada, Lorenzo Sumulong, Enrique B. Magalona, Tomas L. Cabili, Macario Peralta, Jr., Justiniano Montano, and Teodoro de Vera.

Many questioned the disputed election, thus in turn tarnished the reputation of President Quirino's credibility of stopping government corruption and the growing power of the Hukbalahaps in the countryside. Many thought that the American intelligence agency may have a hand in the election turnout. Its not surprising that an unpopular government may put American interests in jeopardy. Mr. Bruell pointed out that the Philippine government was established as the "showcase of democracy" in Asia. In an Asia threatened by communism, the Philippines were "proof" to other Asians that democracy could work for them as well, Mr. Bruell adds.

President Quirino may have started to permanently put his foothold in the presidency for good and as rumors of the administration planning to have repeat "performance" for the next elections. Mr. Bruell relates that another victory by President Quirino in the next elections may instigate a nationwide uprising and a possible Communist takeover.

Despite term limits that safeguard the democratic institutions, leaders have tried to evade the law by propping up "Kamag-anak Incorporated" to further their political power. It is not surprising that some politicians resort to propaganda and rampant cheating to stay in power. Absolute power corrupts absolutely.

And after four years in power, President Quirino suffered a humbling defeat from former Defense Secretary Ramon Magsaysay. The election of 1953 reversed the political climate of the country as the Nationalista Party destroyed the Liberal Party's political control.

In a book entitled "Democracy, Accountability, and Representation" by Adam Przeworski, Susan Carol Stokes, and Bernard Manin, they said that in 22 presidents who faced reelection without impending term limits, only 14 were not reelected, and of those only 6 can be counted as real defeats by incumbents like the case of Quirino who was defeated by Magsaysay in 1953 as well as President Carlos Garcia was defeated by Diosdado Macapagal in 1961.

This reason can be attributed to the fear that presidentialism gives an excessive advantage to the incumbents and as South American liberator Simon Bolivar would say "We elect monarchs whom we call presidents." Thus the fear of presidents turning into monarchs was the reason for imposing term limits.

President Quirino's defeat in 1953 may have been a lead bullet with a colateral damage that lead to the untimely death of President Magsaysay four years later. Ex-President Quirino never ran for public office again and died on February 29, 1956. The Philippines is still suffering from archaic political practices and still looking for political stability.

Come 2010, lets vote wisely and learn from the dark past of the 1949 elections so that we can select the right people to run our country and exorcise the demons that made our country ill.

Note: This article is a reprint of my article posted in my old blog site.

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{picture#https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-AgIZYN7u_Hg/VZvLmrA0hpI/AAAAAAAARt8/mscbLJ1All4/profile%2Bpic.jpg} JP Canonigo is a historian, professional blogger and copywriter, online content specialist, copywriter, video game junkie, sports fanatic and jack-of-all trades. {facebook#http://www.facebook.com/istoryadista} {twitter#http://www.twitter.com/jpthehistorian} {google#http://plus.google.com/+JPSakuragi}
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