Ang Mga Maniniyot ug Litratista sa Karaang Sugbo

Have you ever wondered who captured the oldest photographs of Cebu? They are the OG maniniyots and litratistas of the bygone era.

A Spanish mestizo family at C. Aguilar's studio (upscaled, inpainted, colorized)

In the age of smartphones and digital photography, capturing a moment has become as simple as a tap on the screen. Anyone with a smartphone can instantly snap a photo and share it with the world. However, this convenience stands in stark contrast to the early days of photography, especially in the historical context of Cebu, where the art of image-making was a skill practiced by professional photographers and studios. In this article, we delve into the captivating history of photography in old Cebu, exploring the fascinating world of the famous photographers and photo studios now lost in time.

The term "maniniyot" is derived from the Cebuano word "siyot," a corruption of the English word "shot" (taking a shot from a camera). This nomenclature harkens back to when skilled artisans, known as "maniniyot," meticulously craft photographs through laborious processes like daguerreotype and wet-plate collodion. Similarly, the word "litratista" refers to those who specialized in portraiture and captured the essence of their subjects in photographs. These terms reflect the rich linguistic and cultural heritage of Cebu, where photography was not just a profession but an art form deeply intertwined with the local identity.

Although these words can be taken interchangeably, the former are those people engaged in a trade of taking photographs of people in public areas or events. They are the ones who are carrying their bulky camera and equipment at the Fuente Osmeña or Plaza Independencia. Meanwhile, the latter are those managing photo studios in downtown Cebu, many of these old family-owned established have served customers for generations. They make sure you get that classic feel to your portraits and family photos with custom backgrounds that take you to exotic places you have never been to. Nowadays, professional photographers have to fight for their existence as the democratization of photography has made it possible for everyone to take photos for their Instagram profile and even edit them on Canva or Hipstamatic complete with a more retro effect to simulate real old photographs.

With the use of artificial intelligence, we can upscale the old photos, fill out the missing gaps with inpainting, and test out different color palettes to give these rare black-and-white snapshots some sort of vibrancy.

What makes photography from the old days so fascinating is not only the technical mastery required but also the tangible sense of history it evokes. These early photographs serve as time capsules, preserving the faces, fashions, and lifestyles of a bygone era. Each image tells a story, allowing us to glimpse into the lives of Cebuanos who lived generations ago. In a world dominated by digital images, handcrafted and carefully preserved photographs serve as a poignant reminder of the enduring power of visual storytelling and the indomitable spirit of human creativity.

The Early Years

We are always having this nostalgia for the old days thanks to photographs shared by a lot of people on social media sites and online communities. However, many of these old photos are not properly identified and more importantly, attributed to the right photographers. Sometimes, these photographs' story and historical context are not properly discussed.

Back in the latter half of the 19th century, several pharmacies or ‘boticas’ were selling photo supplies for some photography enthusiasts (usually Spanish, mestizos, and other rich 'illustrados' who could afford such an expensive hobby). Finding the oldest known photograph of Cebu may not be possible for now but Calixto Aguilar is considered as the first commercial photographer of that time. Along with Luis Castaño, they were the pioneers of the photography scene in the late 1880s.

Sample postcards from C. Aguilar

He opened "Galeria de Fotografia de C. Aguilar"  along Calle Cadiz (now Manuel Logarta Street) where he made calling card portraits, or ‘cartes de visite,’ and cabinet cards with ornate back designs. Interestingly, the branding showed a highly-stylized branding of his photo studio for the more expensive item while a simple hand stamp of his name for the cheaper item.

Fort San Pedro, 1899 (upscaled, colorized)

Fishing boats docking at fondeadero, 1899 (upscaled, colorized)

Castaño operated the "Fotografia Filipina" from 1895 to 1902. Other prominent studios during their times include the "Fotografia Espanola de Cebu" and the "Gran Novedad Fotografia."

A New Century

As the 1900s began, a new wave of photographers emerged just as the Americans took over the country and the Spanish left for good. One of them was a Manila-based Spanish photographer Manuel Arias, who came to Cebu during this time and showcased photographs on Japanese-made postcards featuring the anchorage and the Fort San Pedro.

The Postcard Era

In 1899, British photographers Roy Squires and William Bingham began selling photo supplies and postcards marked by their distinctive SB monogram. One of their interesting photographic views was the one taken on the San Nicolas Church in 1902. A woman carrying her baby was leaning on the statue in front of the plaza while another older woman was squatting on the side.

San Nicolas Church, 1902 (upscaled, colorized)

By the time the bloody Filipino-American War started to wane down in the Visayas, Dean C. Tatom was discharged from the U.S. Army in October 1899. Instead of going back home, he decided to stay and seek his own adventure by starting his own photography business in Cebu. He started producing ‘cartes de visite’ as there was a steady stream of customers, mostly fellow American soldiers, dropping by his studio. Like Aguilar’s business model, he had hand-stamped backs for the calling cards and used fancier backs (imported from Vienna) for the cabinet cards.

Sample postcards from D. Tatom

Vendors selling bananas by the roadside, 1902 (upscaled, colorized)

Colegio de San Carlos (upscaled, colorized)

Old nipa house with street lamp in front (upscaled, colorized)

Carabao cart transporting women (upscaled, colorized)

Tatom usually produced 5” x 7” photos from 1901 to 1908. Many of these don’t have his name printed as they were intended to be pasted into albums. Interestingly enough, some of these photographs have typewritten captions. He has a locally printed set of at least 25 sepia-toned postcards without captions with a monogram of the photo engraver’s initials at the bottom corners with a Tarjeta Postal – Post Card on the back.

Cebuano insurgents surrender to the Insular Constabulary, 1901 (upscaled, colorized)

Camera Supply Company from Manila have started printing out colored postcards of Cebu as well. One of these was the previously unidentified freight train postcard and now identified because of the distinctive topography.

PNR engineers surveying the newly built line in Cebu, 1909 (upscaled, colorized)

Some of his works were published by the Manila-based Photo Supply Company as black-and-white and colorized postcards. Another prolific postcard publisher Thomas P. Joseph of the American Bazaar on Calle Magallanes sold some of the earlier photos by Tatom. These were colorized using a special collotype set with a smooth finish from Germany. The LS Company (originally Lambert Springer and later Lambert Sales) also sold postcards using photographs taken by ex-U.S. Army soldiers like Charles Martin, Samuel Shera, and Edward Gallaher.

Cebu baseball team champion, 1910 (upscaled) from LS Co.

The devastation brought by a typhoon that hit Guadalupe, 1912 (upscaled, colorized)

He had a lot of impressive photographic works that captured the life in the city during that time. He married Blandina Sabellano and later, Victoriana Basaga. He died in 1937.

Joseph, was actually a Youssef, a "Syrian" immigrant from the Ottoman Empire with links to Iraq. They are from a Christian family in the Levant, who eventually settled in Madras in British India. Both Thomas and brother Lazarus were born there. They later came to Cebu in search of a better life and great opportunities. His daughter Beatrice married another immigrant named Said Deen, the cousin of Alfredo and Eddie Deen and nephew of Najib Deen. He owned successful businesses selling all sorts of imported European, American and Japanese merchandise, including quality postcards.

Sample postcards from Thomas P. Joseph

The American Bazar was located at Calle Magallanes, 1910 (upscaled)

Cebu train station, 1910 (upscaled, colorized)

American flag flying on top of the old Cebu Provincial Building, 1911 (upscaled, colorized)

Some of the postcards he published were some of the earliest colored photos of Cebu. Many of these were printed using a special German collotype with a smooth finish. Soon, his brother Lazarus started his own postcard business (under the L.G. Joseph name) as well. Many of the photos captured some of the places in Cebu that no longer exist to a certain point.

Boy with his father selling weaved-bamboo amakan, c1915 (upscaled, colorized)

Cebu Fire Station, c1915 (upscaled, colorized)

Calle Magallanes, c1915 (upscaled)

Cebu Lumber sign beside the Colegio de San Carlos, c1915 (upscaled, colorized)

Cebu Train Station, c1915 (upscaled, colorized)

Fiesta de San Juan Bautista, c1915 (upscaled, colorized)

Austrian immigrant David Leopold Falek also entered the scene in 1904 when he published interesting postcards of Cebu during the early prewar period. He bought the old International Hotel, along Calle Colon and Calle Carmelo, and renamed it to Hotel Vienna. Furthermore, he eventually bought Teatro Oriente and married Maria Rivera Mir.

A promotional poster for Cebu's 1st Exposition and Carnival

One of the interesting postcard he produced was the one for Cebu's 1st Exposition and Carnival on December 29, 1913 to January 3, 1914. Another prominent photographer in this decade was Simeon Cavinta of Fotografia Universal.

The Twenties

By the 1920s, new players in the photography scene had entered the market. Photo Materials and Paper Company of Cebu published color-printed postcards in 1924 that was made by Curt Teich & Company from Chicago. The publisher was Lithuanian emigre Henry Aronson, who was also a former U.S. Army serviceman. He ended up settling in Cebu where he married Maria C. Garcia from Talisay, raised children, and acquired properties in Minglanilla and Lahug.

The bustling scene at the Cebu port area, 1924 (upscaled, colorized)

Aronson's photo studio along Calle Magallanes, 1924 (upscaled, colorized)

He showcased various scenes of everyday life in the city during that time. However, it is not certain if he was really indeed a photographer as his store housed other photo studios like Aghma Studio.

By the late 1920s, more and more Cebuanos were able to send or give photos of themselves or their group to friends, relatives, and acquaintances than before. Many of the photo studios by this time were offering personal portraits while some provided wardrobes for clients to borrow and even, fancy painted backdrops to choose from.

Chong Bunkhong became the most prolific photographer of his time

The advent of disposable cameras democratized the photography business to a certain point. Although it's still dominated by foreigners and the rich mestizo class, a Chinese man named Chiong Bungkhong started his studio Fotografia Artistica, which was active from 1904 to 1926, thereby breaking the barrier of this industry. He became the most prolific photographer in Cebu at that time.

Aside from Chiong, another Chinese businessman who operated a popular photo studio was S. Chayseng with his Chayseng Studio (also known as Fotografia Tokming and Centro Moderno Fotografico) from 1915 to 1930. It was known for its decorative pre-printed postcard stock and embossed photos with an elaborate seal.

Portrait of an unknown gentleman, c1925 (upscaled, colorized)

Class photo at Immaculada Concepcion, c1925 (upscaled, colorized)

There is a photograph taken at the Immaculada Concepcion and an unknown portrait of a gentleman was attributed to Chayseng.

Group photo of Cebuano teenagers, 1927 (upscaled, colorized)

In Carcar, there was the Mancao Studio with the famous Filemon "Frank" Mancao, who became famous for documenting the plight of Filipino farmworkers in California during the Great Depression. There is one particular photo that stood out - 'The flowers of Pook' taken by L.A. Mancao on June 17, 1927. These days, Pooc is now a barangay in Talisay City.

The Thirties

By the 1930s, Cebu Studio became the most prestigious photo studio in the city with its main branch at Calle Juan Luna. In a time when war tensions were on the horizon, this was owned by a Japanese expatriate M.S. Kuboki. Unlike its competitors, Cebu Studio had its own pre-printed type of postcard photo paper with its film envelope showcasing its Kodak film.

Opon Church, c1930 (upscaled, colorized)

Ang Kalipayan movie theater, c1930 (upscaled, colorized)

Southern Islands Auditorium, c1930 (upscaled, colorized)

Among its famous postcards were landscapes and other scenes such as the Opon church, the Ang Kalipayan movie theater, and Southern Islands Auditorium, which featured the legendary vaudeville performer Luis Borromeo.

Portrait of Isidora Siloria, c1930 (upscaled, colorized)

Cebu Studio also specialized in exquisite society portraits for women who wanted to be like Hollywood beauty Greta Garbo and one of them who rose to fame was renowned singer and actress Isidora Siloria. Other Japanese-owned photo studios include the Hijada Studio and Sun Studio (operated by B. Nagata).

Princess Anne of Just Imagine Club, 1932 (upscaled, colorized)

Crowning of Queen Domenica, 1937 (upscaled, colorized)

National Studio was active during this decade as it often covered events outside the city such as the crowning of Princess Annie of Just Imagine Club in Pinamungahan on April 16, 1932, and Her Majesty Queen Domenica I and Consort, elected 'Miss Liberty' at the Dalaguete Town fiesta on February 14-15, 1937.

It was also this decade when women finally entered the photography profession even though it was only on September 17, 1937, when women's suffrage was finally legalized after the plebiscite of 300,000 was surpassed with 447,725 affirmed their aspiration to vote against 33,307 nays.

Encarnacion Livionko with consort Victorino Climaco at the 1927 Cebu Carnival (upscaled, colorized)

Studio photo of a girl, c1930 (upscaled, colorized)

Studio photo of two women in traditional Filipiniana, c1930 (upscaled, colorized)

Also known as R. Gonzales Studio and Fotografia Feminista, the Rosa Studio was named after Rosa Gonzales de Tumulak. It was located at different times from 152 Calle Manalili and 213 Calle Juan Luna. It produced studio portraits with elaborate props.

There are photo studios that operated prior to and after the Second World War - Sanson Studio, Venus Studio, and Shadow Studio.

The indoor baseball team of the Cebu Normal School, 1933 (upscaled, colorized)

A woman in Filipiniana costume in Star Studio, c1930 (upscaled, colorized)

The next time you see an old man holding a film camera and wanting to take a photo of you, get one for a change. Our history and cultural heritage were captured in photos back in the day and things we thought we knew may no longer exist in the future.



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Istoryadista | History Blog | Cebu Blogger: Ang Mga Maniniyot ug Litratista sa Karaang Sugbo
Ang Mga Maniniyot ug Litratista sa Karaang Sugbo
Have you ever wondered who captured the oldest photographs of Cebu? They are the OG maniniyots and litratistas of the bygone era.
Istoryadista | History Blog | Cebu Blogger
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